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» Glavni naslovi

SUMMARY

 

Summary

THE FEATURE ARTICLE OF THIS ISSUE

Birds

Authenticated habitats for several hundred species In the territory of the nowadays Serbia, starting with the second half of the 17th century till now existence of around 360 bird species has been recorded. If birds which most probably do not make part of wild, self sustainable populations, but originate from captivity, are left out, 351 species have been now confirmed in Serbia. 220 species of birds spend winter here, and 53 species arrive to spend the winter in our areas. Some of the rare and endangered species of birds in Serbia are corncrakes (Crex crex), saker falcon (Falco cherrug), western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni), and great bustard (Otis tarda).

 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Turing’s mistake

No matter how oddly it may sound – artificial intelligence is basically behaviorist scientific approach, based on an assumption that development of intelligent machines does not require substantial understanding of human intelligence, so that it is sufficient for the machines to credibly simulate intelligent behavior. In the course of the last four decades research in this area has been characterized by dogmatic disregard of the fact that this assumption is erroneous. Things, nevertheless, are not always what they appear to be. Author of one of the most quoted publications in contemporary philosophy is a mathematician Alan Turing, known as a father of modern computers, who in his famous publications issued in 1950 presented his proposal of how to deal with the issue - could machines actually think. Somehow surprising Turing’s stance was that such a question was nonsensical, for concepts „machine” and „thinking” are equivocal and needed to be replaced. Turing suggested a test of indicative title: imitation game.

 

CONQUERING THE UNIVERSE

Indirect look on Earth


Following the postponement of launching planned for November 2017, due to observed deficiencies in the electric power system, the Japanese agency for space research (JAXA) successfully launched its first commercial satellite named „Asnaro-2” (an acronym from the English Advanced Satellite with New System Architecture for Observation. It was launched from the Uchinoura space center located on the Kyushu Island. „Asnaro-2” is a small satellite with the „nextar” (Next Generation Star) NX-300L platform which holds the „xsar” (X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar – a radar with synthetic lens opening in X range) designated for gathering images of the Earth surface in various regimes and communicating them along with large range of data which include images sensitive to polarization.”

 

LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE

SPACE RESEARCH NASA and water on Mars


NASA and private companies like „Space X”, an American company which deals with cargo shipping, but also plans to transport people into the Universe, are focused at planning of the mission to Mars. For the time being, however, they have no clear idea of how to find the necessary water supply reserves. Using the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) a NASA’s Mars Exploration Program they have recently discovered abundance of easily accessible water. Researchers found at least eight locations where erosion of cliffs uncovered thick layers of almost clean ice, only one or two meters beneath the rocks and dust. Those discoveries mean that the future missions will have an easier task to dig out drinkable water and water for production of missile fuel, no matter if the spacecrafts are manned or have robot crews

 

MEDICINE

New approaches in treatment of glaucoma


Similar to the „soft” lenses for correction of dioptre, a new drainage stent which is implanted to people with glaucoma to enable control of pressure in the eye is easier to bear and is more comfortable. It is implanted for constant wearing, using a very safe and minimally invasive surgical intervention, says Dr. Maja Škuletić ophthalmologist of Bel Medic. Disturbed filtration of the eye liquid, as the main cause of increased eye pressure and consequently development of glaucoma, is being corrected with various therapeutic procedures. If the therapy with eye drops in some cases proves to be insufficiently efficient, laser and surgical procedures are available. Within surgical options, apart from the classic trabeculectomy which, by some ophthalmologists is still considered „the golden standard”, better control of eye pressure can be ensured by implanting if intraocular trabecular stents which provide support to filtration of eye liquid

 

MEDICINE

Protection from pneumococcal infections


Although it does make part of the natural bacterial flora of nose and esophagus, pneumococcal can cause perilous infections and diseases. Antibiotics do not possess the original potential for eradication of numerous bacteria, inclusive pneumococcus, therefore artificial immunization is the best protection option, says Dr. Aleksandra Vukov, pediatrician- pulmonologist in BelMedic. Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) bacteria – generally a regular dweller of nose and esophagus – can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Some serotypes of these bacteria are very virulent, while showing an increasing resistance to antibiotics we use in treatments, so that the so called pneumococcal invasive diseases are the major cause of lethal cases of children younger than five. According to the World Health Organization data, they carry of almost one million of children, particularly in developing countries.

 

MEDICINE

Precise graphics of sport injuries


Thanks to the fact that it outstandingly well displays soft tissues and bones, magnetic resonance has no substitution in assessment of pathological modifications of spinal cord, muscles and connective tissues of the bonejoint system. There is no superior method neither for assessment of damage on cartilage tissue of joints, says Dr. Dejan Akerman, radiologist of the Belgrade-based BelMedic. Magnetic resonance has, in the course of the last three decades, become irreplaceable in neurologic diagnostic of injuries and diseases of muscles and bone-joint system. According to Dr. Dejan Akerman, radiologist in the BelMedic general hospital, in the most developed countries, along with neuro-radiologic cases, almost an identical number of diagnostic checkups go for the use of magnetic resonance in the muscle-skeleton radiology.

 

ARCHITECTURE

Aquatic and underwater settlements


An ancient idea to distend human settlements to aquatic surfaces or ocean depths since recently gets new encouragement through innovative projects. One of the leading companies in that sector is the American „US Submarine Structures”, whose experts intensively work on underwater and partly submerged structures for residential or commercial purposes. All around the globe their project „Poseidon”, an underwater holiday resort in Fiji is the object of numerous discussions. „Poseidon” was due to be completed in 2008. Notwithstanding the obvious delay, some 150,000 persons are ready to pay 14,000 US dollars for a one week stay in that unusual hotel. It has also been communicated that at least one person wishes to purchase the apartment named „h2ome”. It goes for a roundish house located some 20 meters under water. Occupants enter into the structure by a special elevator or using the circular staircase. Water supply, sewage, communication and electricity installations are connected to the coast.

 

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